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How SLA derives all the rules required for Create Accounting?

We all know SLA is rule driven to derive accounts for create accounting process. If you are not using standard (seeded) accounting rules, but have created a new one with a new application accounting method for a specific application, how create accounting program uses these rules to derive correct accounting?
We talked about SLA earlier here. If you follow the earlier article, we are talking about using application accounting method (custom) to derive an account for a specific journal line type (debit or credit). To achieve custom accounting you assign this accounting derivation rule to this journal line type. These journal line types roll into event classes (invoices or deposits) and entities (AR transactions) to form Application Specific Accounting Method. This accounting method is assigned to an application of interest where this desired accounting is expected. This accounting method has to be validated (Validation Program) for this to be used.
This validation process actually creates a database package where all these rules are coded and maintained. To identify the package you can use this simple script which gives you the package name. Parameters to this package have to be sourced from the table XLA_PRODUCT_RULES_B. This tables stores the application accounting definitions that we talked about earlier. For example you want to get the custom application accounting method you have created for Receivables, you can simply use this SQL to get that.
Pass the values from the above SQL to this simple function get that package. If you want to see standard rules, change product rule type code from C to S. If you have more than one product rule code (application accounting method), you should know which one you are looking for. If you open this database package your technical eyes can see what is happening in create accounting program.

select application_id,
product_rule_code,
product_rule_type_code,product_rule_hash_id from xla_product_rules_b
where application_id=222 –Receivables
and product_rule_type_code=’C’;


DECLARE
c_package_name CONSTANT VARCHAR2 (30) := ‘XLA_$id1$_AAD_$id2$_$id3$_PKG’;
l_package_name VARCHAR2 (1000);

FUNCTION getpackagename (
p_application_id IN NUMBER,
p_product_rule_type_code IN VARCHAR2,
p_product_rule_hash_id IN NUMBER
)
RETURN VARCHAR2
IS
l_name VARCHAR2 (30);
l_hashapplication VARCHAR2 (30);
l_hashrulecode VARCHAR2 (30);
l_log_module VARCHAR2 (240);

BEGIN
l_hashapplication := LPAD (SUBSTR (TO_CHAR (ABS (p_application_id)), 1, 5), 5, ’0′);
l_hashrulecode := LPAD (SUBSTR (TO_CHAR (p_product_rule_hash_id), 1, 6), 6, ’0′);
l_name := c_package_name;
l_name := REPLACE (l_name, ‘$id1$’, l_hashapplication);
l_name := REPLACE (l_name, ‘$id2$’, p_product_rule_type_code);
l_name := REPLACE (l_name, ‘$id3$’, l_hashrulecode);
RETURN l_name;
EXCEPTION
WHEN OTHERS
THEN
NULL;
END getpackagename;
BEGIN
l_package_name :=
getpackagename (p_application_id => 222,–application ID
p_product_rule_type_code => ‘C’, –Rule type
p_product_rule_hash_id => 18 –Hash value
);
DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line (l_package_name);
END;

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Concept behind Subledger Accounting

Before going into any detail, let me take you into accounting world for a brief moment. Fundamentally accounting is based on two methods : Cash Basis or Accrual Basis.
Accrual Basis Accounting
Under the accrual basis accounting, revenues and expenses are recognized as follows:
AR:

  •  Revenue recognition: Revenue is recognized when both of the following conditions are met:
        a. Revenue is earned.
        b. Revenue is realized or realizable.
  •  Revenue is earned when products are delivered or services are provided.
  • Realized means cash is received.
  • Realizable means it is reasonable to expect that cash will be received in the future.

AP:

  • Expense recognition: Expense is recognized in the period in which related revenue is recognized (Matching Principle).

Cash Basis Accounting
Under the cash basis accounting, revenues and expenses are recognized as follows:
AR:

  • Revenue recognition: Revenue is recognized when cash is received.

AP:

  • Expense recognition: Expense is recognized when cash is paid.

 Timing differences in recognizing revenues and expenses:

  1. Accrued Revenue: Revenue is recognized before cash is received.
  2. Accrued Expense: Expense is recognized before cash is paid.
  3. Deferred Revenue: Revenue is recognized after cash is received.
  4. Deferred Expense: Expense is recognized after cash is paid.

                 Options in 11i                            To                                Options in 12
Till 11i the only way we represent this accounting method is by choosing accounting method in Payables Options in AP and System Options in AR. But in R12 you can see in that these options are gone from the system options of AP and AR. That is where subledger accounting comes in.
Part of the global release concept in R12, accounting methods have to be much more flexible and generation of accounting entries should be configurable.
As we know accounting is the end product of transctions and financial statements are end products of accounting. Also there is a need to seperate transaction from accounting. An accounting clerk who creates an invoice has nothing to do what accounting is behind that transaction. It is the duty of the management to decide accounting behind this transaction. 
Subledger Accounting is taking us in that direction.
Purpose of Subledger Accounting
The end product of Subledger Accounting Setups is a Subledger Accounting Method that can be assigned to one or more ledgers in GL. All accounting in different subledger applications is subject to the rules defined in this accounting method.
In 11i, as mentioned earlier, the only way to choose accounting method we chose is AR and AP system options setup (Cash Vs Accrual). We used start in GL setting up the Set of books and then define the organization information like Legal Entity and Operating units and so on. And then define these accounting methods for each operating unit. As you can see operations and accounting are so closely meshed with each other. But in R12 it is not the same. In this release it is now configurable in Subledger Accounting setups taking this away from system options of individual products.
Demystifying subledger accounting setups
Out of the box, Oracle seeds accounting rules for all applications. If you are satisfied with the Oracle’s seeded rules, there is no need to change any setup and you can use those existing rules (Accounting Method for Accrual is Standard Accrual and for Cash is Standard Cash). This screenshot here shows you the difference between the Accrual Basis of accounting and Cash Basis of Accounting. As you can see here, per rules, there is no accounting created when invoice is created under cash basis (no revenue is recognized until cash is received) but accounting is created when cash is realized. Invoice is accounted as soon it is completed under Accrual Method. This is configurable here where as in 11i we did not have a choice!.
If you choose this accounting method, accounting works exactly the way it works in previous releases.
Subledger Accounting as a gatekeeper of Reconciliation
       R11i Transfer to GL                                                                   R12 Transfer to GL
Starting R12 all accounting entries are generated and passed through subledger accounting application instead of directly going to GL. Hence reconciliation is already done between source to Subledger Accounting and Subledger Accounting to GL, reducing huge amount of time spent on reconciliation. Since these entries have to flow through the subledger accounting application, there is a need to map the source application accounting entries to subledger accounting. That is key for the setups.
Mapping a transaction to Subledger Accounting Setup
                                        AR Invoice Accounting
Let us take a simple example. Whenever you create an AR Invoice following accounting takes place. 
                             
                             Invoice Accounting in AR
Taking a step back and thinking through, this transaction is happening in AR for the Invoice Creation event….                                            
                                            Subledger Accounting Setup Model
Now we map the source (AR Invoices) to Subledger Accounting as shown here. So to conclude
Journal Line Types are nothing but accounting line types (Receivable or Revenue).
Event Classes identify a transaction type (Invoice Vs Credit Memo).
These two are assembled using Accounting Derivation Rules and Sources.
All these together make up Application Accounting Definition for Receivables.
Different Application Accounting Definitions together make up a Subledger Accounting Method.
This method can be attached to one or more Ledgers.

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WIP completion and Asset Tracking

Back in 2009, I needed WIP completion transaction also be part of the Asset Creation process for depreciable items in Asset Tracking. The base was either R12.0.4 or R12.0.6, i don’t remember. But traditionally, for depreciable items,  following transactions are supported to create an asset in FA while the asset is still in Inventory.

  1. Miscellaneous Receipt
  2. Account Alias Receipt
  3. Account Receipt
  4. PO Receipt into Inventory
  5. PO Receipt into Projects
  6. Physical Inventory (Receipts)
  7. Cycle Counting (Receipts)

But there are companies that manuafacture products and they want to track them in FA. They typically get into inventory with WIP completion transaction. As you can see this transaction is not in the list above.
Recently, to my surprise, I found this patch 7489949 (which was released in 2008) that includes WIP completion also into supported transactions for asset creation. To add to my surprise, support had no clue when they were asked for solution at that time. Of course we came a long way.
BTW, it is included in base release of R12.1.1.