The ledger is a basic concept in Release 12. The ledger replaces the 11i concept of a set of books. It represents an accounting representation for one or more legal entities or for a business need such as consolidation or management reporting. Companies can now clearly and efficiently model its legal entities and their accounting representations in Release 12. This seems to be a major area in getting success of the shared service center and single instance initiatives where many or all legal entities of an enterprise are accounted for in a single instance, and data, setup, and processing must be effectively secured but also possibly shared.

Now, legal Entities can be mapped to entire Ledgers or if you account for more than one legal entity within a ledger, you can map a legal entity to balancing segments within a ledger.
While a set of books is defined by 3Cs

  1. chart of accounts
  2. functional currency
  3. accounting calendar,

The addition in this list the ledger is defined by a 4th C: the accounting method.

This 4th C allows you to assign and manage a specific accounting method for each ledger. Therefore, when a legal entity is subject to multiple reporting requirements, separate ledgers can be used to record the accounting information.
Accounting Setup Manager is a new feature that allows you to set up your common financial setup components from a central location.

General Ledger Setup Flowchart

While you can set up your Oracle General Ledger application in many different ways, and defer optional set up steps until you are ready to use the corresponding functionality, we recommend you use the order suggested in the following flowchart: Some of the steps outlined in this flowchart and setup checklist are Required and some are Optional. You need to perform Optional steps only if you plan to use the related feature or complete certain business functions.

The following setup steps are a high level overview of the setup steps related to Oracle
General Ledger and Accounting Setup Manager. 

Leger is created in 5 stages
1. Create Legal Entity.
2. Define Leger.
3. Define Accounting Options.
4. Assign Legal entities to your Ledger .

5. Assign Balancing Segment Values to respective Legal entities. 

Navigation: General Ledger –> Setup –> Financials –> Accounting Setup Manager –> Accounting Setups.

  • Create legal entity
Click on Create Accounting Setup and then click on Create Legal entity.

Click on Apply and then click on Next.

  • Define Leger

Click on Next and then Finish.

  • Define Accounting Options

Click on Define Accounting Options and click on update.

 Click on Next, and assign Retained earnings Account.

  Click on Next, Nextand Finsh.

Assign Legal entities to your Ledger.

Click on Add Legal Entity.
 Click on Add Legal entity.

 Add your Legal entity and click on Apply.

  • Assign Balancing segment values to legal entities

Click on the update Balancing Segment Values

Click on Add Balancing Segment Value.

Assign Balancing segment values to these legal entities.

Click on Apply and then click onComplete.

 Once you complete ledger we are getting the following Warning.

 Click on Yes.

 Ofter click on the yes we are getting the following confirmation. 

Click on Return to Accounting Setups.

A good part of SLA functionality is deriving correct account based on business rules. This functionality is called defining account derivation rules. The outcome of accounting derivation rule sometimes is an entire account (famously known as code combination) or simply a segment in the code combination. If only a segment is derived then each of the segment in the chart of accounts is weaved together just like the way it is done in workflow account generator. Take for example revenue account. Oracle gives us a default account from the transaction in AR which is generated using Auto Accounting. What we can do is, take that account and plant a specific segment, say, natural account under specific condition. Also the whole account can be replaced with a new one under specific conditions.
The difference between workflow account generator and SLA accounting derivation rules is that, the conditions under which the account or a segment derived reside in code in first one but are visible to the business users in later one. They understand the conditions under which an account is derived because it is configured in the screens and not sitting some cryptic code. Also little room for bugs, so to speak.
Usually we generate the account for either credit or debit line of a journal entry. An accounting entry, at a minimum, has a debit and credit. These are called are journal lines (a debit line and a credit line). An accounting derivation rule is for a specific journal line. Going a little further this journal entry is for a transaction. This transaction event is called event class. These two make up the heart of SLA setups.
Taking the same example of revenue account, revenue account is a journal line. Revenue is one side or one line in an accounting entry. The other usually is a receivables account (in case of AR transaction). These two together make a journal entry. And this journal entry belongs to an event class called Invoice (in case it is invoice).But if you have observed the line definitions under invoice event class you might have noticed way more than these two lines. That is because each of them is used in different ways depending on the nature of transaction.
Implementation: What is in it? What kind of work is involved?
Traditionally we have accounting in each application or a process flow is taken care of by individual specialist in that area. For example an AR specialist used to get the accounting needs implemented as per the requirement and cost management or order management specialist gets the cost accounting right. So a business process owner for accounting has to run around each of these specialists to get the accounting taken care of. Also prior to SLA the functionality provided in Oracle is rigid in some application areas and very flexible in a number of other areas. To cater to these flexible needs a number of tools were also available like Workflow account generators, Post or Pre hooks or some setups to generate accounting based on business rules.
SLA is a game changer from that perspective. We can throw away workflow accounting generator and post or pre-hooks coding. And also one specialist, who understands enterprise accounting and business needs of accounting department, can implement complete SLA solution in all applications and processes. This is new and emerging consulting role.
Implementing SLA involves writing rules to arrive at accurate accounting under specific conditions for a specific transaction event. To achieve what you need, we may need to write some coding in custom sources but in general that is far simpler than workflow. All you need to know if writing simple pl/sql code.
But for a SLA specialist the challenge is in understanding transactions and event class is mapping to these transactions. Sometimes it is self explanatory. An event class like Sales Order issue in Cost Management or Invoice in AR tells you that these are for COGS and Revenue respectively. But not all are so straight forward. But if you have knowledge about the transactions performed in each application areas and some technical background it is pretty easy to get there.

Apart from generating accounts there are a lot of other features in SLA.

We all know SLA is rule driven to derive accounts for create accounting process. If you are not using standard (seeded) accounting rules, but have created a new one with a new application accounting method for a specific application, how create accounting program uses these rules to derive correct accounting?
We talked about SLA earlier here. If you follow the earlier article, we are talking about using application accounting method (custom) to derive an account for a specific journal line type (debit or credit). To achieve custom accounting you assign this accounting derivation rule to this journal line type. These journal line types roll into event classes (invoices or deposits) and entities (AR transactions) to form Application Specific Accounting Method. This accounting method is assigned to an application of interest where this desired accounting is expected. This accounting method has to be validated (Validation Program) for this to be used.
This validation process actually creates a database package where all these rules are coded and maintained. To identify the package you can use this simple script which gives you the package name. Parameters to this package have to be sourced from the table XLA_PRODUCT_RULES_B. This tables stores the application accounting definitions that we talked about earlier. For example you want to get the custom application accounting method you have created for Receivables, you can simply use this SQL to get that.
Pass the values from the above SQL to this simple function get that package. If you want to see standard rules, change product rule type code from C to S. If you have more than one product rule code (application accounting method), you should know which one you are looking for. If you open this database package your technical eyes can see what is happening in create accounting program.

select application_id,
product_rule_type_code,product_rule_hash_id from xla_product_rules_b
where application_id=222 –Receivables
and product_rule_type_code=’C’;

c_package_name CONSTANT VARCHAR2 (30) := ‘XLA_$id1$_AAD_$id2$_$id3$_PKG’;
l_package_name VARCHAR2 (1000);

FUNCTION getpackagename (
p_application_id IN NUMBER,
p_product_rule_type_code IN VARCHAR2,
p_product_rule_hash_id IN NUMBER
l_name VARCHAR2 (30);
l_hashapplication VARCHAR2 (30);
l_hashrulecode VARCHAR2 (30);
l_log_module VARCHAR2 (240);

l_hashapplication := LPAD (SUBSTR (TO_CHAR (ABS (p_application_id)), 1, 5), 5, ’0′);
l_hashrulecode := LPAD (SUBSTR (TO_CHAR (p_product_rule_hash_id), 1, 6), 6, ’0′);
l_name := c_package_name;
l_name := REPLACE (l_name, ‘$id1$’, l_hashapplication);
l_name := REPLACE (l_name, ‘$id2$’, p_product_rule_type_code);
l_name := REPLACE (l_name, ‘$id3$’, l_hashrulecode);
RETURN l_name;
END getpackagename;
l_package_name :=
getpackagename (p_application_id => 222,–application ID
p_product_rule_type_code => ‘C’, –Rule type
p_product_rule_hash_id => 18 –Hash value
DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line (l_package_name);

Before going into any detail, let me take you into accounting world for a brief moment. Fundamentally accounting is based on two methods : Cash Basis or Accrual Basis.
Accrual Basis Accounting
Under the accrual basis accounting, revenues and expenses are recognized as follows:

  •  Revenue recognition: Revenue is recognized when both of the following conditions are met:
        a. Revenue is earned.
        b. Revenue is realized or realizable.
  •  Revenue is earned when products are delivered or services are provided.
  • Realized means cash is received.
  • Realizable means it is reasonable to expect that cash will be received in the future.


  • Expense recognition: Expense is recognized in the period in which related revenue is recognized (Matching Principle).

Cash Basis Accounting
Under the cash basis accounting, revenues and expenses are recognized as follows:

  • Revenue recognition: Revenue is recognized when cash is received.


  • Expense recognition: Expense is recognized when cash is paid.

 Timing differences in recognizing revenues and expenses:

  1. Accrued Revenue: Revenue is recognized before cash is received.
  2. Accrued Expense: Expense is recognized before cash is paid.
  3. Deferred Revenue: Revenue is recognized after cash is received.
  4. Deferred Expense: Expense is recognized after cash is paid.

                 Options in 11i                            To                                Options in 12
Till 11i the only way we represent this accounting method is by choosing accounting method in Payables Options in AP and System Options in AR. But in R12 you can see in that these options are gone from the system options of AP and AR. That is where subledger accounting comes in.
Part of the global release concept in R12, accounting methods have to be much more flexible and generation of accounting entries should be configurable.
As we know accounting is the end product of transctions and financial statements are end products of accounting. Also there is a need to seperate transaction from accounting. An accounting clerk who creates an invoice has nothing to do what accounting is behind that transaction. It is the duty of the management to decide accounting behind this transaction. 
Subledger Accounting is taking us in that direction.
Purpose of Subledger Accounting
The end product of Subledger Accounting Setups is a Subledger Accounting Method that can be assigned to one or more ledgers in GL. All accounting in different subledger applications is subject to the rules defined in this accounting method.
In 11i, as mentioned earlier, the only way to choose accounting method we chose is AR and AP system options setup (Cash Vs Accrual). We used start in GL setting up the Set of books and then define the organization information like Legal Entity and Operating units and so on. And then define these accounting methods for each operating unit. As you can see operations and accounting are so closely meshed with each other. But in R12 it is not the same. In this release it is now configurable in Subledger Accounting setups taking this away from system options of individual products.
Demystifying subledger accounting setups
Out of the box, Oracle seeds accounting rules for all applications. If you are satisfied with the Oracle’s seeded rules, there is no need to change any setup and you can use those existing rules (Accounting Method for Accrual is Standard Accrual and for Cash is Standard Cash). This screenshot here shows you the difference between the Accrual Basis of accounting and Cash Basis of Accounting. As you can see here, per rules, there is no accounting created when invoice is created under cash basis (no revenue is recognized until cash is received) but accounting is created when cash is realized. Invoice is accounted as soon it is completed under Accrual Method. This is configurable here where as in 11i we did not have a choice!.
If you choose this accounting method, accounting works exactly the way it works in previous releases.
Subledger Accounting as a gatekeeper of Reconciliation
       R11i Transfer to GL                                                                   R12 Transfer to GL
Starting R12 all accounting entries are generated and passed through subledger accounting application instead of directly going to GL. Hence reconciliation is already done between source to Subledger Accounting and Subledger Accounting to GL, reducing huge amount of time spent on reconciliation. Since these entries have to flow through the subledger accounting application, there is a need to map the source application accounting entries to subledger accounting. That is key for the setups.
Mapping a transaction to Subledger Accounting Setup
                                        AR Invoice Accounting
Let us take a simple example. Whenever you create an AR Invoice following accounting takes place. 
                             Invoice Accounting in AR
Taking a step back and thinking through, this transaction is happening in AR for the Invoice Creation event….                                            
                                            Subledger Accounting Setup Model
Now we map the source (AR Invoices) to Subledger Accounting as shown here. So to conclude
Journal Line Types are nothing but accounting line types (Receivable or Revenue).
Event Classes identify a transaction type (Invoice Vs Credit Memo).
These two are assembled using Accounting Derivation Rules and Sources.
All these together make up Application Accounting Definition for Receivables.
Different Application Accounting Definitions together make up a Subledger Accounting Method.
This method can be attached to one or more Ledgers.

One of many cool features in SLA is creating manual journal entries. Many times we have a need to pass manual entries to reverse the entries happened a source transaction because the account is wrong or date is wrong or even the value is wrong. All sub ledgers give you a way to reverse the transaction and hence reverse the associated accounting entry. But sometimes you may run out of time and luck and resort to manual entries in GL. Once we are GL to enter manual entries for transactions that pertain to sub ledger, we lose an opportunity to reconcile as we do not have primary references for which we have created this accounting entry for. If we have any reports that are based on SLA tables the reconciliation becomes harder as we cannot link anything that happened in the GL with the SLA. After all, the purpose of SLA is to eliminate this risk of reconciliation with GL.
Also, I guess, Oracle Support uses this route (manual journal entries) to fix any entries that were corrupted in the original transaction.
While entering these manual entries we can capture original transaction attributes using supporting references feature where you can capture attributes like asset_id if it is Assets related entry, transaction_id if it is related to Inventory, invoice_Id for AP and customer_trx_id or cash_receipt_id if it is AR invoice or cash respectively, These give meaning to the manual journal entries.
Process comes in three steps: 
Creating entries, saving them as incomplete entries with in SLA to be posted later and finally completing this so that this will automatically transfer to GL, journal Import and Post them as needed. To create manual entries you need to assign a sub-function SLA: Create Subledger Journal Entry to the menu. It will appear as a button in the view journal entries page.
The same can be achieved with an API XLA_JOURNAL_ENTRIES_PUB_PKG. Also this is immensely useful if you want to create accounting entries related to transactions in legacy or related systems. You can capture the supporting references related to the related system for reconciliation purpose.
The best part of using this API is that, we do not have to separately code for Journal Import and Posting (with complete journals parameter to complete, transfer and post). The value you pass to this parameter takes care of that.
Sources:Oracle Financial Accounting Hub Implementation Guide (Chapter 12 on Manual Sub ledger Journal Entries API) and Oracle Subledger Accounting Implementation Guide (Chapter 6 Sub ledger Journal Entries).